The thoracic spine is an intricate construct of bones, connective tissues, nerves, muscles, spinal segments, and joints. While the thoracic spine has a solid construction and is relatively stable, it can also be a source of pain. Some of the sources for this pain are as follows:
- Muscular problems. Upper back pain is most commonly caused by muscle irritation or tension, also called myofascial pain. The cause may be poor posture or any type of irritation of the large back and shoulder muscles.
- Joint Dysfunction. Pain caused by joint dysfunction, where the ribs attached to the thoracic spine at each level can cause pain.
- Herniated or degenerative discs. While less common in the thoracic spine, degenerative disc disease or a thoracic herniated disc can be a source of pain.
- Swelling due to arthritis in the spine can cause tenderness, pressure to the nerve, and limited range of motion.
- Vertebral fractures. Compression fractures due to osteoporosis are a main cause of thoracic spine pain in the elderly. While compression fractures can occur anywhere in the spine, they typically occur in the lower vertebrae of the thoracic spine (T9-T12).
- Kyphosis; more commonly known as hunchback. In addition to vertebral fractures, kyphosis can be caused by many factors such as poor posture or deformity. While kyphosis is primarily a deformity, it can also be a source of pain.
- Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine abnormally curves sideways and can sometimes produce upper back pain.
Occasionally, pain felt in the thoracic spine can be a symptom of a more serious underlying disease or problem. Both musculoskeletal diseases and non-orthopedic conditions (such as a cancerous tumor exerting pressure on the spine) can cause upper back pain, as well as certain diseases of the heart, lungs, abdominal organs, or kidneys.